Structure of manuscript:
A title should summarize the main idea of the manuscript. It should identify the variables under investigation and the relationship between them. It should be concise and fully explanatory for readers when standing alone. It is recommended to be no more than 12 words, and with no abbreviations. It should be typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered in the upper half of the page.
Every manuscript should include the name of the author and the institutional affiliation of the author when the research was conducted.
The preferred form of an author's name is first name, middle initial(s), and last name, with no titles (e.g., Dr., Professor) or degrees (e.g., PhD, PsyD, EdD). If the manuscript is done by more than one author, the names of the authors should be in the order of their contributions, centered between the side margins.
The affiliation (i.e. institution) should be centered under the author’s name on the next line. If an author has no institutional affiliation, list the city and state of residence below the author's name. The emails for all authors should be provided.
Zaki Ahmed Farhan
Department of psycology, Faculty of Arts, University of Sana’a, Sana’a, Yemen
Zaid Ali Nasher
Department of political sciences, Faculty of economics, Aden University, Aden, Yemen
An abstract in both Arabic and English must be included, with the former version in the language of the manuscript. It should be in a form of a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the manuscript written in a single paragraph with no paragraph indentation. It must not exceed 200 words.
The abstract should describe clearly the problem under investigation, in one sentence if possible; identify the purpose of the research, the essential features of study method; the participants’ relevant characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnic and/or racial group; the basic findings including statistical significance levels; and the conclusions and the implications or applications. Keywords (3 - 5) should follow the abstract to increase user's ability to find useful information in the manuscript. The abstract starts on a separate page (i.e. p. 2).
The body of a manuscript starts with an introduction that frames the problem under study and explores the importance of the problem (why the problem deserves new research). The statement about importance might involve the need to resolve any inconsistency in results of past work and/or extend the reach of a theoretical formulation and/ or investigate a practical problem that people suffer. The introduction ends in concluding the statement of the problem with a brief but formal statement of the purpose of the research that summarizes the material preceding it.
The author needs to discuss the relevant related literature in the introduction. A scholarly description of the earlier work will provide a summary of the most recent directly related work and recognize the priority of the work of others. The description of relevant literature will present what other aspects of this study have been investigated in the previous studies and how the current study differs from the earlier ones. For summarizing earlier works, focus should be on the topic (research syntheses of the topic), methodological issues, relevant findings, and main conclusions.
The discussion of related literature should demonstrate the logical continuity between previous and present work (demonstration of gaps); and the development of the problem should have enough breadth and clarity that make it easy to understand by a wide range of professionals.
After developing the theoretical background and the problem of the study, the author has to state the objectives and the hypotheses or specific questions. The introduction should be 10 to 15% of the manuscript. It starts on a separate page (i.e. p. 3).
This section describes in detail how the study was conducted, including conceptual and operational definitions of the variables used in the study. A comprehensive description of the methods used enables the reader to evaluate the appropriateness of the methods and the reliability and the validity of the results. It may include participant characteristics, sampling procedures, sample size, measures and research design.
Results section summarizes the collected data and the analysis done on those data. It should provide sufficient detail about the data to justify the study conclusions. The results should also include details that may not match the study expectation; or even small effect sizes (or statistically non-significant findings) particularly when theory predicts large (or statistically significant) ones. Uncomfortable results should not be omitted. The data can be presented in tables or figures (data presented in tables should not be represented in figures). Tables should be numbered in order of mention in the text. Tables can be single-spaced and should not contain any lines. Asterisks may be used to indicate significant findings. Symbols, acronyms or abbreviations should be used sparingly. Explanatory footnotes should be used whenever possible rather than overlong titles. Images should be submitted as high-resolution files (300 dpi or higher) in TIFF format (LZW compression) or JPEGs.
After presenting the results, their implications should be evaluated and interpreted, especially with respect to the original hypotheses. The author needs to examine, interpret, and draw inferences and conclusions from the results emphasize any theoretical or practical consequences of the results (Results and discussion can be combined in one section). Similarities and differences between the results and the work of others should be used to contextualize, confirm, and clarify the conclusions. Each new statement should contribute to the interpretation and to the reader's understanding of the problem.
The interpretation of the results should discuss the limitations or weaknesses of the study, and address alternative explanations of the results. It also discusses the generalizability of the findings. This critical analysis should take into account differences between the target population and the accessed sample.
This concluding section presents a brief, reasoned and justifiable commentary on the importance of the findings. It is tightly reasoned, self-contained, and not overstated. In this section, the importance of the problem (as stated in the introduction) should be discussed; what larger issues might depend on the findings; and what propositions are confirmed or disconfirmed.
This section makes reference to the aid received by the author from other relevant parties. Reference should also be made to any financial assistance received to conduct the research. Any extraordinary assistance received by the author in word processing, data collection, data analysis, and so on, should be acknowledged. The acknowledgements should not exceed 60 words.
References start on a separate page.
Authors should acknowledge the work of previous scholars by citing references to document statements in their manuscripts. For accurate, complete, and useful citation, authors should consult APA manual (6th ed.) which provides detailed guidance on citing sources and preparing the reference list.
The reference list starts on a new page with the word ‘References’ in uppercase and lowercase letters, flush left. Double-space all reference entries. The first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented.